Constitutional Background

An interim constitution, the "Law on Major Constitutional Provisions", has governed the country since 1991. Unsuccessful drafts of government and opposition date 1993, Oct 1994, and Feb 1995.  The 1998 Draft Constitution has been approved by parliament on 21 Oct; it is not yet available as an ICL-edition.

Albania had one of the longest-lasting Stalinist regimes in Europe under the dictatorship of Enver Hodscha. After new President Berisha's Draft Constitution which strongly fortified his presidential powers failed to gain approval by referendum, a struggle started between the President and the President of the Supreme Court, Zef Brozi.

History and News

  • 21 Oct 1998: Constitution adopted.
  • 29 June 1997: Parliamentary elections; the main issue is a settlement of the parties about election rules.
  • 15 May 1997: Franz Vranitzky, envoy of the OSCE, arrives in Tirana to arrange the supervision of the coming elections.
  • 3 March 1997: Berisha is re-elected by a parliament that long has been boycotted by the opposition.
  • 2 March 1997: Berisha sacks his Prime Minister and puts his secret police chief in charge of enforcing the state of emergency.
  • Jan 1997: Snowballing investment schemes collapse, resulting in riots and unrest with the southern third of the country out of control.
  • 26 May 1996: President Sali Berisha discredits his government by blatant ballot-stuffing and police suppression of opposition during parliamentary elections; his Democratic Party wins a huge majority in the 140-seat parliament under a first-past-the-post system.
  • 1994: Former Prime Minister and opposition politician Fatos Nano is sentenced to twelve years in a disputed corruption trial.
  • 1992: Sali Berisha wins presidential elections.
  • 1992: After the Albanian revolution, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is adopted.
  • 21 May 1991: Interim Constitution adopted: "Law on Major Constitutional Provisions".
  • 1990: First dissident protests.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 27.6.2020 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.